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Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic – tested the safety and effectiveness of two different HIV prevention approaches among 5,029 women in Uganda, South Africa and Zimbabwe: daily use of an antiretroviral (ARV) tablet (tenofovir or Truvada) or daily use of a vaginal gel (tenofovir gel). The study was conducted from September 2009 to August 2012. Results, first reported in March 2013, found all three products were safe but not one was effective; most participants did not use them daily as recommended. Young, unmarried women were least likely to use study products and the most likely to acquire HIV, indicating the urgent need for safe, effective and practical HIV prevention methods women will actually use. For many women, drug was not detected in any blood sample taken at any time during the study, suggesting they may have never used the products at all. However, among women in the tenofovir gel group whose blood tests indicated use of the gel, HIV risk appeared to be reduced significantly, additional analysis showed.


VOICE also included three sub-studies: VOICE B (Bone Mineral Density), VOICE C (Household and Community Factors Associated with Adherence), and VOICE D, which looked to better understand women’s actual use of study products and sexual behavior during their participation in VOICE.



Final results of the HIV prevention study VOICE are published in NEJM





Women who took part in VOICE study speak up about why they didn’t use the HIV prevention products being tested



New results from VOICE associates tenofovir gel use with lower HSV-2 risk in women



Secondary Analysis of VOICE: Injectable Contraception and HIV Risk Q&A



First Comparison Between Injectable Contraceptives DMPA and NET-EN Suggests Some Women Using DMPA Were at Higher Risk of Acquiring HIV



Behavioral Measures of Product Use Didn’t Measure Up in VOICE HIV Prevention Trial, Report the Study’s Researchers



Daily HIV Prevention Approaches Didn’t Work for African Women in the VOICE Study



Fact sheet – The VOICE C and VOICE D Social and Behavioral Research Sub-studies: Looking for answers about adherence and the women in VOICE



VOICE Fact Sheet – Understanding the Results of VOICE



NIAID Press Release on VOICE Results



Other Study Milestones

Microbicide Trials Network Statement on Decision to Discontinue Use of Tenofovir Gel in VOICE, a Major HIV Prevention Study in Women



Questions and Answers on Decision to Modify VOICE, Outcome of November 17 DSMB Review



Microbicide Trials Network Statement on Decision to Discontinue Use of Oral Tenofovir Tablets in VOICE, a Major HIV Prevention Study in Women



Questions and Answers on Decision to Modify VOICE, Outcome of September 16 DSMB Review



HIV Prevention Trial Milestone: VOICE Study Completes Enrollment of 5,000 Women



VOICE Study, a major HIV prevention trial for women, is launched in Zimbabwe



NIAID Press Release on start of VOICE



HIV prevention trial of ARV-based strategies to begin next month



VOICE and Related Trials

Questions and Answers about the CDC TDF2 Study and VOICE



VOICE Study will Continue as it Considers What Action to Take After Results of Two Trials



Questions and Answers about Partners PrEP and VOICE



Microbicide Trials Network Statement on the status of VOICE Study following announcement to close the FEM-PrEP trial



Trial shows ARVs can prevent HIV in men who have sex with men, making VOICE Study in women more important than ever



Results of CAPRISA 004 a turning point for HIV prevention, say MTN researchers conducting VOICE



Understanding Resistance

Please note that the information contained in the following materials may have changed since publication.

Drug Resistance and ARV-Based Prevention Fact Sheet


Drug Resistance and ARV-Based Prevention Q&A



Video: Drug Resistance and ARV-Based Prevention


See Also

MTN-003 (VOICE) Study Protocol


MTN-003 (VOICE) Study Page


MTN-003 B (VOICE B) Study Protocol


MTN-003 C (VOICE C) Study Protocol

MTN-003 D (VOICE D) Study Protocol